Category PACP Version 7.0 Update Question NASSCO Response
PACP Our asset management models use a risk assessment of 1 to 5 for all our infrastructure. How can we easily convert the PACP risk scores of 1 to 6 to match our risk score 1 to 5 based on WRc ver 3 You can simply factor by 5/6.  The important thng is that the LoF rates (developed here from PACP) balance with CoF rates.  If one is a 5 point scale  the other needs to be so as not to have one component influencing risk more than the other.  
PACP Are factors and grades for Consequence of Failure being provided? No.  The information for CoF in Appendix C is only a guide for a simplified methodology.  There are other valid ways, and utilities can use more or less of the considerations to develop CoF based on available information.  Each utility should defining the CoF Factors, utilities must also decide upon weighting factors for each consideration.  The important thing is that the utility be in agreement and that the method be definable so that an AMP can explain the methodology.
PACP Several versions ago there were recommendations for which scores should trigger rehabiliation within a certain period of time.  This was removed in subsequent versions.  Has this been added back in with the Risk Appendix? Not at this point.  This is an engineering decision that is beyond the scope of the purpose of this appendix.
PACP What are the valid entries for the "Consequence of Failure (COF)" field? Any number.  I recommend determining to 1 decimal.
PACP Will Asset Mangement Appendix have spreadsheets or similar tools available to process data to determine risk? Not at this point.  Since there are other valid ways of determining.  This was to present a general method.
PACP Are the LoF and CoF values calculated or estimated? LoF is calculated from the overall quick rating.  CoF can be set up to be a calculation once you "estimate" some criteria.  These can be quite precise or very general.
PACP How exactly would duration of failure be determined prior to failure? If you are referring to useful life, then the various pipe associations have guidelines.  If we know when a pipe was installed then this gives us a starting point.  These can be improved if their is good assessment data.  And can be improved more if we have more than one assessment separated by years.  We can observe defect deterioration and estimate the rate.
PACP Is the LoF calculated only using the QRS? No - it uses the overall rating.  O&M issues also result in deterioration and ought to be equaly considered based upon the code grading rates.
PACP Is the Appendix on asset management going to be in the training material? Not at this time.  There are other training courses for asset management such as those provided by BAMI-I.  These do use the PACP methdology in their materials.
PACP Are COFs manually inputed? Yes.  
PACP Are PACP pipe ratings affected by infiltration defects coded in the the lateral? Infiltation codes affect the O&M Ratings of the pipe.  If a structural defect is observed (from which the infiltration is coming) then that defect is recorded, and will affect the Structural Rating of the pipe.
PACP Are the definitions of heavy cleaning and light cleaning the same for MACP and PACP? No.  F27
PACP Can you show us a true pic or definition of a fracture hinge? PACP Version 6.0.1 manual shows an example of FH on page 5-14.
PACP Describe a little bit about acceptable wrinkling in CIPP lining  Wrinkling is generally acceptable in CIPP if it does not affect the normal flow charactoristics.  However, the engineer should consider specific factors when determining acceptability.
PACP Did you provide for coding "lift" holes in the pipes? The Hole (H) code is used.  Generally this is one clock position at 12 O'Clock.  If known to be a lift hole, it should be so noted in the remarks.
PACP Does debris attached to inside of pipe for a continuos length that can be removed with a flushing truck be coded? Attached deposits should be coded.  If they are not quantifiable (<5%), they can be coded as a water mark (MWM).
PACP Exfiltration from sewers into storm pipes is a common occurence in our older city. Should there not also be a defect code for that? We are coding what we see inside the pipe being surveyed.  When surveying the storm pipe referenced, it would be observed as infiltraiton and coded as such.  If water is seen leaving the pipe (through a defect or open join) it would be coded as a General Observation (MGO).
PACP Has thought been put into how old defect data will be merged with new data in asset databases? Aside from new codes, will any existing code scores change? All codes in version 6.0.1 will be mapped into existing codes.  There was a comprehensive review of condition grades, and some were changed.  
PACP Are there any codes for DIP with a P401 liner? Coating Method is a new field for 7.0, and since P401 is a ceramic epoxy, it would be coded as Epoxy (EP) under this field.
PACP How is the distance mesured while using ZOOM technologie (more about PACP)? Zoom Technology does not provide and accurate method of detemining distance.  Estimates can be made by associating the distance with pipe joint lengths.  Such equipment manufacturers can provide other methods of estimating distances.
PACP Are there levels for coding H2S corrosion with respect to surface erosion on concrete pipe? Yes.  The surface damage codes provide codes from "Surface Roughness Increased" to "Missing Wall".  
PACP In assessment of the manhole, is there any documentation associated with hydrogen sulfide corrosion? The PACP surface damage codes are applicable to MACP.
PACP In reference to pipe connections, can the connections be identified with there respective upstream or downstream mh, in addition to just using the numbering convention 1,2,3 etc based on outlet pipe and clock position? Structure ID provides the Pipe Segment Reference associated with the pipe connection.  The upstream or downstream manhole, and any other information not recorded in the pipe connection fields, can be entered in the "Additional Component Information" field.
PACP In the PACP header, has CIPP and HDPE been added under the materials category? CIPP (coded CIP) is in the lining method field (not pipe material).  PE, which includes HDPE pipe, is in the material code for both versions 6 and 7.
PACP Is there an official code for a drop connection or are we still using a MGO ? Drop connections are coded as Taps.
PACP Priority codes for taps - should the intrusion not be higher than the defect Tap modifiers are coded based on the highest priority, which is The significance is prioritized as follows: 1. Intruding, 2. Defective, 3. Capped, 4. Activity, 5. Abandoned
PACP Will a certified operator be required to be on site during the inspection, or will a certified operator performing the coding later be allowed? The individual responsible for the inspection must be certified.
PACP Would you consider changing code for roof vent? ARV also stands for air release valves we have on force mains and grinder systems. This will be ARV in version 7.0. 
PACP Am I understanding correctly, that the camera operator will now be assessing the consequence of a failure, and if so, shouldn't that be an assessment made by the Owner? The owner is responsible for determing CoF.  The Risk Managementt appendix provides a methodology for using the inspection results and incorporating it into an asset management system.
PACP So, where is the boundary between light & heavy cleaning? Yes.  See above.
PACP What is your distinction between "connection" and "lateral"? Barrel (B), Connection (C), Joint (J) or Lateral (L) are used as modifiers for roots and infiltration.  "Connection" refers specifically to the interface between a lateral pipe and the main pipe.  "Lateral" refers to the actual lateral pipe itself.
PACP Has consideration been made to differentiate between service lateral connections (house services) and storm connection (inlet leads or other main line tapping-in to the line being TV'd)?  Currently all is coded with taps, but we want to isolote the services connections from the other taps. This information is generally unknown to the surveyor, who would only see it as a tap.  If it becomes known through dye testing or other means, it should be noted in the remarks.
PACP Still not clear on what to call the drop connection? It used to be called a tap at 6 o'clock, but is it the standard now or is it still an MGO? It is still a tap at 6 O'Clock.
PACP What kind of information do the GIS fields accomodate for?
Version 7.0 allows for collection of northing, easting, and elevations for upstream and downstream manholes, as well as fields for coordiante system and accuracy.
PACP I have the PACP Ver 6 MS Access Tables. I would like to aquire the MS Access forms so I dont have to write them myself or purchase software from a vendor. Contact NASSCO.
PACP It sounds as though it is not a good time to upgrade our CCTV Vehicle with new software unless the software company is going to offer free upgrades. NASSCO has no control over when software vendors make update.  This should be discussed with your software vendor.
PACP Will version 7.0 require an inspection report to be reviewed?   No.  However, data review at various levels is being incorporated into preparation of deliverables, and the reviewer fields allow for documentation of such review by a certified PACP user.
PACP Any additional consideration for coding force mains? Forcemains and other presure pipes do not lend themselves to visual inspection as well as gravity lines.  Aside from listing Tuberculation as an Deposits Attached Encrustation, there was little added to accmodate force mains.
PACP Are MACP and LACP separate programs or they are part of PACP in terms of certification and inspection? PACP is a prerequisite to MACP and LACP.  All three are separate programs.
PACP How many PACP trainers are there right now and PACP users? There are 105 trainers in the U.S. and Canada, and NASSCO has certified over 20,000 PACP users.
PACP PACP Grade 5 defects include a broad range of broken defects, but some Grade 4 defects are actually worse than some Grade 5 defects. Also, why are joint offsets only structural Grade 2 defect? Condition grades were reviewed by various engineers and PACP trainers, but should be considered as a guidleline that does not take the place of good engineering judgement.  Joint offsets (M and L) are common in certain types of pipe, and medium offsets generally do not significantly affect the operation of the sewer unless accompanied by other recordable defects, such as infiltration or loose sealing rings.
PACP Regarding Inspection Status as added to PACP: Was there going to be an "Other" option as well? MACP and PACP should be the same. PACP now has MACP Inspection Status.
PACP Why a 45 or 90 degree bend in a sewer pipe gets a PACP maintenance rating of 4? The rating system is set up as a flag to call attention to a specific pipe. The ratings are not indicators of improper sewer design. When pipe bends are extreme, the bends become friction points for the flow, maintenance equipment such as jet hoses, and CCTV camera cables. Bends are also subjected to a greater chance of material buildup when there is insufficient slope. There are unusual situations where the pipe would be constructed straight to a point near a manhole then a bend is installed to enter the manhole. This is not defective construction in that the engineer may have designed sufficient slope on the line to provide a pipeline velocity that flushes or cleans the out the bend; however, it can be an operational problem for proper pipeline inspection. Bends also present a problem to cleaning because the friction can make it very difficult or impossible to get a hose or rod through the pipeline, and increases the chances of getting it stuck. The same is true for grouting equipment.
PACP Taking into account the recent changes with continuous observations (start and finish may have different properties), there is a chance that the finishing observation has a rating that differs from the start one, then how are pipe ratings calculated? You should use the highest percentage or the widest clock position range of the starting or ending point properties.
PACP How is the TBI condition rating calculated? Divide the value of the protruding lateral pipe by the height/diameter of the sewer main and multiply by 100.
PACP Is audio recording required when coding defects and observations? Audio is encouraged, but not mandatory in PACP, unless if it is required in the specifications.
PACP The computer software automatically combines the Operations and Maintenance Deficiencies and the Construction Features scores into the O&M rating. Is this how the scoring is supposed to work? Some codes found in the Construction Features and Miscellaneous codes have Structural and O&M condition grades because they are evidence of a structural or
maintenance condition. For example MWLS (Miscellaneous Water Level Sag) has a Structural condition grade, while MWM (Miscellaneous Water Mark) has an O&M condition
PACP If a survey is abandoned and a reverse inspection is completed, can the two reports be combined into one? Combining two reports is not the PACP practice for data collection. The PACP manual states that "a separate CCTV inspection form will also be used for reverse set‐ups", which means having two separate reports and two separate scores. However, some CCTV software products provide features which can combine the two segments into one report.
PACP I have questions about PACP Recertiication. Where do I find the information? Click here for information on PACP Recertification.
PACP NAAPI Certification versus PACP Certification? Click here.


If a tap has defect within (roots or fracture), but is active (flow observed not associated with the defect withi, how you you code? Code Activity in the remarks in addition to the PACP code used to describe the defect.
PACP How do you evaluate the accepability of a lateral liner? What should be considered? The quality requirements conontained in the specification; the existing condition and deterioration level of the lateral; the number & severity of bends in the lateral; and the rehabilitation goal, structural, or leakage control, or both.
PACP Can you assess failure probabilities based on condition grades? Condition grades try to provide a condition information from least to most severe, but they cannot really give an indication of remaining life because of the myriad of other factors that can be involved that are not part of the condition grade determination.
PACP When the water level changes before a coded defect, such as roots, how should this water level change be coded? I would suggest you use the MWL code and indicate the percentage of diameter to the nearest 5% unless you are 100% sure it is a sag.  There definitely can be changes in water level without a sag.
LACP Has a LACP code been added to code Top Hats? No, a lateral with a top hat would be coded as rehabilitated in a PACP inspection and coded using lining codes in an LACP based inspection with a note in the Remarks as an option
LACP How much intrusion of lateral pipe is permissible ? so that it is not listed as deffective. It is not defined, as it depends on the size of the main line.  Use best judgement to determine if the intrusion can cause debris buildup for example.
LACP Will the lateral defect codes have different severity codes to go with them? No changes have been made to severity for LACP codes from previous version.
LACP Is the lateral wye considered part of the main? A lateral connection at the main found during a PACP inspection would be coded using the Tap codes.  For Wyes observed during an LACP based inspection, use AW or AWD.
LACP Has consideration been made to differentiate between service lateral connections (house services) and storm connection (inlet leads or other main line tapping-in to the line being TV'd)?  Currently all is coded with taps, but we want to isolote the services connections from the other taps. No, not in PACP, best way to clarify is in Remarks column and/or by using the PSR or LSR associated with the tap.  In the LACP you could clarify connection using Sewer Use.
MACP In assessment of the manhole, is there any documentation associated with hydrogen sulfide corrosion? Yes, for an MACP based inspection you would use the same codes provided in PACP to document H2S corrosion
MACP Is there a code in regards the benches and channels when the level of sewage is too high to make accurate observations? What would be appropriate to put in the B&C fields in that case? Basic rule for MACP based inspection is similar to PACP based inspection, in order to conduct comprehensive condition assessment you would need to see as much of the structure as possible and therefore should recommend cleaning in order to code bench/channel defects if unable to see them.  You could use the MGO code to document the observation and indicate surcharge evidence if that is true in the component observation form.
MACP Is there a condition rating for a Manhole Cover? Yes, there are several.
MACP When coding roots comming in at a joint in a MH, what percent do you input? Percent of overall space in MH, percent of barrel cross section or percent of flow it would obstruct if any? Percent should be based on the cross sectional area lost due to roots specific to the size (space) of the component you are in: Wall, Chimney, Cone etc.
MACP  Is MACP level 2 redefined to imply it is the only way to make a "condition assessment"? A level 2 inspection is a comprehensive assessment of the manhole that will provide condition ratings similar to how we have determined ratings in pipelines, using the 3rd section of the MH inspection form, the MH Defect Form.  However, the 3rd section of the MH inspection form will be available should an operator want to note some of the defects observed during a Level 1 inspection.
MACP Wouldn't the channel be considered one of the pipes that would covered by PACP, and not in MACP? No, channel is covered in MACP.  An MACP based inspection stops at the MH wall where it interfaces with in and outgoing pipes.  A PACP based inspection begins at the MH wall and continues into the connecting pipes.
MACP Does a level 2 manhole inspection allow for camera tools to be used in lieu of manhole entry? Yes, special equipment can be used for a Level 2 inspection and should allow the operator to see all parts inside the manhole down to pipe connections and pipe seals.  That said, some specifiations require entry inspections to provide more accurate measurements, etc.
MACP Is the manhole rating for both level 1 and level 2 or just for level 2? The manhole ratings will typically apply to a Level 2 inspection when the MH defect form is being used and defects are being coded in each component with available PACP codes.  
MACP Will the new MACP rate the entire MH or just the compnents or both? The manhole condition ratings will be calculated for the MH  using the defects coded in the 3rd section of the MH inspection form, similar to how it is done for PACP.  It can be rated according to individual observations or by the overall manhole  rating. manhole rating index and by the overall quick rating for the entire manhole.  The risk management process will use this to develop the LoF rating. 
MACP Can you give a few camera technology that can be used to perform a level 2 manhole inspection in lieu of entry  Manhole Zoom cameras or 360 MH cameras can be used in lieu of entry